What to do in a Medical Emergency

Burns

Dr. Brian Keaton, Emergency physician at Summa Health System in Akron, Ohio

About 4,000 people die each year in the United States from fire and burn injuries. Burns are one of the leading causes of childhood injury. They can be caused by scalding from hot liquids or cooking oils, contact with flames, or from overexposure to the sun. Burn also can be electrical (e.g., when a child bites an electrical cord) or chemical (e.g., resulting from swallowing or spilling bleach on your skin).

Here you will find information about minor burns, and chemical and electrical burns.

Minor Burns

BurnFor minor burns:

  • Remove the person from the heat source and remove any burned clothing, except clothing imbedded in the burn.
  • Run cool - not cold - water over the burn or hold a clean, cold compress on it until the pain subsides. Do not use ice. Do not use not butter or other types of grease.
  • Remove jewelry or tight clothing from around burned areas, and apply a clean bandage. You can also apply antibiotic cream.

Seek emergency care for more serious burns and for any burns to the eyes, mouth, hands, and genital areas, even if mild. If the burn covers a large area, get medical attention immediately. Get immediate medical attention if you have any of the following symptoms related to a burn:

  • Fever
  • Puss-like or foul-smelling drainage
  • Excessive swelling
  • Redness of the skin
  • A blister filled with greenish or brownish fluid
  • A burn that doesn't heal in 10 days to two weeks

Never break blisters from a burn, and remember not to remove clothing stuck to burned skin. If you are helping someone with a serious burn, keep the burned areas elevated to reduce swelling.

In addition, know what to do in case you or your clothing catches fire: stop (don't run), drop (to the floor, immediately), and roll (cover your face and hands while rolling over to smother the flames).
If you are helping someone else who has been burned, remove the person from danger first, unless doing so puts you in danger as well.

Chemical and Electrical Burns

For chemical and electrical burns, call 911 or your local emergency number. Assess the situation to make sure you (and the victim) will not be in contact with the burn source. For electrical injuries, DO NOT approach an injured person until you know the power source has been turned off.

For chemical burns:

  • Dry chemicals should be brushed off the skin by a person wearing gloves.
  • Remove the person's clothing and jewelry and rinse chemicals off the skin by placing the person in a shower for 15 to 20 minutes. (Be careful to protect your eyes and the eyes of the injured person.)
  • Wet chemicals should be flushed off affected areas with cool running water for 20 minutes or longer or until emergency help arrives.
  • If you or someone else has swallowed a chemical substance or an object that could be harmful (e.g., watch battery) call poison control first (1-800-222-1222) and then 911. It is helpful to know what chemical product has been swallowed. Take it with you to the hospital.

Minor electrical burns can be treated with cool (not cold or ice) compresses. After cleansing, a mild antibiotic ointment and bandage may be applied. A tetanus shot is also recommended, especially if the person has not had one in more than 10 years.

For more serious electrical burns:

  • Check for breathing. If the person is not breathing, start rescue breathing if you know how.
  • Raise burned arms and legs higher than the person's heart.
  • Cover the person with cool, wet cloths. Do not use butter, ointments or any other home remedy. Do not break the blisters or remove burned skin.

Sunburns with extensive blistering or general symptoms of nausea, vomiting, weakness or chills, are more serious and need physician evaluation.

Prevent burns by following safety precautions:

  • Install smoke detectors on every floor and check to make sure they are working and/or replace batteries every six months.
  • Teach children to avoid hot substances and chemicals. If you have young children, use safety latches in your home
  • When cooking, keep pot handles turned toward the rear of the stove, and never leave pans unattended.
  • Do not leave hot cups of coffee on tables or counter edges.
  • Do not carry hot liquids or food near your child or while holding your child.
  • Always mix and stir then check the temperature of food or beverages before serving a child, especially foods or liquids heated in a microwave.
  • Keep matches and lighters out of children's reach in a locked cabinet. Use only child-resistant lighters.
  • Prevent scalding by keeping your water heater set at 120º to 125º F; test bath water before putting a child in the bathtub.
  • Cover unused electric outlets with safety caps, and replace damaged, frayed or brittle electrical cords.
  • Keep fire extinguishers on every floor of your house, especially in the kitchen, and know how to use them.
  • Do not put water on a grease fire - it can spread the fire.

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